I went through part 3 of Elliot’s English Language, Analysis & Grammar article:
I made a video of me reading through part 3 of the article and doing the questions:
My answers to the questions from Part 3 are below. The answers below have a couple of edits from the video which I’ve noted with “EDIT”.
Conclusion of Part 3 Example Sentences
Running fast isn’t fun.
Linking verb: is
“not” is an adverb modifying “is.”
“fast” is an adjective modifying “Running.”
I don’t want to stand on my porch when it’s wet.
Action verb: want
Auxiliary verb: do. Enables the negation of “want” by adverb “not.”
Object: to stand (infinitive).
“not” is an adverb modifying “want.”
“on my porch” is an adverbial prepositional phrase describing the location where the person does not want to stand.
object of preposition: porch.
“my” modifies “porch.”
“when” is a conjunction. It tells us the situation under which the person does not want to stand on their porch: when it’s wet.
Subordinate clause: it’s wet.
Linking verb: Is.
Conclusions: I don’t want to stand in a particular location under a particular condition. The location is my porch. The condition is when it is wet.
Swimming after work is too tiring.
Linking verb: is.
Subject: swimming (gerund).
“after work” is an adverbial prepositional phrase describing when the swimming takes place.
Object of preposition: work.
“too” is an adverb modifying “tiring.”
John gets sweaty when he does his exercise routine.
Action verb: gets
“when” is a conjunction describing the situation under which John gets sweaty.
Subordinate clause: he does his exercise routine.
Action verb: does.
Subject: he (refers to John).
“his” and “exercise” modify routine. “His” is referring to “John’s.”
Conclusions: John gets sweaty in a particular situation. That situation is when he does his exercise routine.
I gave him gifts.
Action verb: gave.
Indirect object (standing for “to him”): him.
I love to throw boomerangs to myself.
Action verb: love.
Object: to throw boomerangs. Infinitive phrase with the object “boomerangs.”
“to myself” is a prepositional phrase describing the recipient of the object of the infinitive.
What word is the prepositional phrase modifying?
EDIT: It modifies throw. It’s not modifying “I” or “love” or “boomerangs.”
What sort of prepositional phrase is it?
EDIT: Adverbial phrase.
Conclusions: I love to engage in an activity. The activity is throwing boomerangs to myself.
When a movie is boring, I stop watching.
Action verb: stop.
Object: watching (gerund).
subordinate clause: a movie is boring
Linking verb: is.
complement: boring. EDIT: present participle, adjective.
“a” modifies “movie.”
Conclusions: I stop watching a movie under a particular condition. That condition is when the movie is boring.
I like reading non-fiction books out of order.
Action verb: like.
object: reading books (gerund phrase with an object, with the whole phrase serving as an object in the sentence).
“non-fiction” is an adjective modifying “books”
“out” is an adverb modifying “reading.”
“of order” is an adverbial prepositional phrase describing what we’re out of.
My broken speakers don’t work for making sound.
Action verb: work.
Auxiliary verb: do. support word for “not.”
“not” is an adverb modifying “work.”
“my” is an adjective modifying “speakers”
“broken” is a past participle adjective modifying speakers.
“for making sound” is an adverbial prepositional phrase describing what the speakers do not work for.
“making” is a present participle adjective modifying sound?
Conclusions: My speakers are broken. They don’t work for making sound.
EDIT: I think maybe “making sound” works better as a gerund object of a preposition which has its own object.
EDIT: This is a decent short quiz I found specifically on distinguishing between gerunds and participles.
FYI, working at the CIA is cooler than the FBI.
Implied words rewrite: FYI, working at the CIA is cooler than [working at] the FBI.
Action verb: is.
Subject: Working (gerund).
Adverbial prepositional phrase: than [working at] the FBI
Adjective prepositional phrase: at the FBI
“the” modifies “FBI”
FYI is an abbreviation for “For your information.”
Conclusions: The following information is for your information: working at the CIA is cooler than working at the FBI.